Multiple people have complained of seeing unusually thin cows in a field near Chelmarsh, with one woman describing them as "skeletal".
Now Shropshire Council's animal experts have opened an investigation in which they are working alongside the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).
Matthew Aldridge, the council’s health protection team manager, said: "Members of Shropshire Council’s animal health team are aware of the complaint and are working closely with Defra vets to investigate this matter and assess the welfare of the animals.”
The council would not name the farm or anyone involved in the investigation, and Defra could not be reached for comment.
In February Twitter user @PeteWard7 posted a picture and a video showing a number of cows in a field, describing them as "underfed" and with "bones sticking out".
Another user with the handle @LucyWno3 also said: "A number of concerned members of the public have reported this to animal health. These cows are really suffering."
Another account, @violetbakes, described what she had seen, adding "A herd of skeletal cows near here are outside without shelter or food. The cows are in Chelmarsh. One is looking very frail and hardly walking."
The RSPCA encourages people who see pets and farm animals alike that are suffering to report it to its 24-hour cruelty telephone line.
A spokesman said: "The RSPCA believes that the basic welfare of all animals must take into account five welfare needs. These needs are: somewhere suitable to live; a proper diet, including fresh water; the ability to express normal behaviour; for any need to be housed with, or apart from, other animals; protection from, and treatment of, illness and injury."