The man was using the cigarette in his bedroom at Blakemore, Brookside, when it exploded, at around 12.40pm this afternoon.
Shropshire Fire and Rescue Services sent two crews to the scene after a 999 call and it is understood that the man had a tooth knocked out and suffered burns to his hand and face in the explosion.
West Midlands Ambulance Service also attended and paramedics took the man to Princess Royal Hospital Telford for treatment on his injuries.
Malcolm Stevenson of Shropshire Fire and Rescue Service, said it was the first such incident he was aware of in the county.
He said: "Although there have been cases where e-cigarette chargers have been known to catch fire when they overheat. This is the first as far as I am aware of an actual e-cigarette exploding or burning in this way."