Armed officers were sent to Leegomery after the robbery at the Spar at Leegomery Centre at around 8am Tuesday.
The area was cordoned off as a police helicopter was scrambled along with a dog unit and the nearby area was searched.
Three men were later arrested on suspicion of armed robbery, West Mercia Police has confirmed.
The force has not yet said where the men were arrested but officers were guarding a house in Chockleys Meadow, around half a mile away from the Spar.
Woodland and green space south of the Spar was being searched in the hours after the robbery while officers armed with semi-automatic weapons guarded the scene.
The shop is next to Apley Wood Primary School, while officers were also scouring the area near Millbrook Primary School, and both primaries reassured parents that their children were safe.
The suspects remained in custody on Tuesday evening.
Earlier Superintendent James Dunn sought to reassure residents that his officers were doing their best to track down the suspects.
He said: “There is currently an increased police presence in and around the Leegomery area as we deal with this incident.
"Incidents of this nature are extremely rare and we understand the level of concern they can cause within our local communities. "
Leegomery Centre is home to the Spar convenience store, Greggs, a hairdresser and a chemist.
Nobody was injured in the raid and police have not said which weapons were used by the men involved.
A Spar spokesman said that staff who were in the shop at the time were being supported and helping police with inquiries.
A West Mercia Police spokesman said: "Three men have been arrested following an armed robbery in Telford earlier today.
"The robbery took place around 8am this morning at the Spar convenience store at the Leegomery Centre in Leegomery.
"Three men have been arrested on suspicion of armed robbery and are currently in police custody.
Anyone with information is asked to contact police quoting incident 6li of October 12.