Emergency services including the Midlands Air Ambulance rushed to an address in Field Close, off Meadow Farm Way in Harlescott, at about 4.45pm on Saturday.
A 12-year-old boy suffered a cardiac arrest and was treated at the scene before being taken by land ambulance to Princess Royal Hospital in Telford where he was pronounced dead.
A man and a woman were arrested on suspicion of causing/allowing the death of a child and have been released on police bail while investigations continue.
West Midlands Ambulance Service (WMAS) sent two ambulances and a paramedic officer and the Midlands Air Ambulance from Cosford was also on scene.
Residents reported about half a dozen police cars at the address, and witnesses say the air ambulance circled the area before landing near to The Lantern Centre.
A WMAS spokesman said: "We were called at 4.45pm to reports of a medical emergency at a private address off Meadow Farm Way, Harlescott.
"Two ambulances, a paramedic officer and the Midlands Air Ambulance from Cosford attended the scene.
"On arrival we discovered one patient, a boy, who was in a serious condition. Following treatment at the scene he was transported to Princess Royal Hospital on blue lights and sirens."