Shropshire Council said its health protection team had issued the emergency closure for Threshers Wine Shop at Shoplatch in Shrewsbury.
According to the authority it came after "a public health complaint and identification of a serious rat infestation at the premises".
The council said the team has now put a 'Hygiene Emergency Prohibition Order' in place which temporarily closes the premises for up to 21 days. It is intended to allow the owner to "deal with the rat infestation and undertake the necessary proofing works and treatment of their property".
The authority said it would make sure the required improvements are made before the shop is reopened.
Simon Jones, Shropshire Council’s cabinet member for adult social care and public health, said: “Our key priority is the health and safety of customers. Every year our inspectors make hundreds of hygiene inspections visits to premises that handle and serve food, because the public want to have confidence and reassurance that where they buy food from meet the standards expected.
“While many of the county’s food businesses across Shropshire meet the highest food hygiene inspection rating of 5, when we do encounter food safety issues, we need to act quickly as the public rightly expect us to do so.
“We are aware that rat infestations increase during the winter as they look to settle inside looking for warmer conditions, food and shelter.
"I would therefore urge all businesses to ensure they have the appropriate pest control checks in place and that they seek a reputable pest control contractor to undertake any remedial actions, including pest proofing and preventative baiting.
"Businesses can find out more by visiting our Pest Control webpage or emailing firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.”
A major wine firm has also distanced itself from the shop, saying the use of the Threshers name on its signs is illegal.
A spokesman for Threshers said: "It has come to our attention that a Shrewsbury off licence has been operating illegally under the Threshers name without our consent.
"This off licence has recently been closed due to a public health complaint. As an online retailer, we would like to reassure customers that we do not have any physical stores in operation, therefore have no association with the off licence in question.