Two cars collided on the eastbound M54 between Junctions 7 at Wellington and 6 at the Ketley Dingle interchange just before 12.30pm on Friday.
The road was shut while emergency services attended the scene. Ambulance crews provided trauma care for one woman who had been seriously injured before she was taken to hospital in Shrewsbury, but she was confirmed dead at the hospital.
West Mercia Police said the woman's next of kin have been informed.
A statement from the ambulance service said: "West Midlands Ambulance Service was called to reports of a multi-vehicle collision eastbound between junctions 6 and 7 near Wellington at 12.26pm.
"Two ambulances and a paramedic officer were sent to the scene."
The WMAS spokesperson added: “One patient, a woman, was in a critical condition on arrival. Ambulance crews provided advanced trauma care before conveying her to hospital in Telford for further treatment."
Meanwhile a man has been arrested on suspicion of drink driving after a second crash on the same stretch of road just minutes later.
West Mercia Police said officers received a report of a car and lorry colliding between junctions 6 and 7 at around 12.50pm.
In a statement, the force said: "No one was hurt in the collision. The driver of the car has been arrested on suspicion of drink driving. Officers are still dealing with the collision."