Firefighters were able to take to woman to safety after being called to an address in Admiral's Close.
She was treated by paramedics before being taken to the Princess Royal Hospital.
A man managed to get out of the property before emergency services arrived.
The alarm was raised just after 3.30pm on Wednesday.
Three fire crews from Telford Central and Wellington went to the scene, along with operations and fire investigation officers.
Firefighters put on breathing apparatus to enter to property and, were able to locate the woman and rescue her from the building.
A spokesperson for Shropshire Fire and Rescue Service said: "The fire was in a first-floor bedroom. One female was rescued by fire service personnel."
West Midlands Ambulance Service said: "We were called to reports of a property fire at 3.45pm at Admiral’s Close, Shifnal. One ambulance, a paramedic officer and the Midlands Air Ambulance Critical Care Car from Cosford were sent to the scene.
"On arrival, fire crews had already rescued one patient, a woman, from the property. She was treated by ambulance staff for non-life threatening injuries before being taken to Princess Royal Hospital for further assessment. A man, who had got himself out of the property, did not wish to be assessed."
The blaze was under control by 4.45pm. Its cause is not yet known.