Firefighters from Chester and Whitchurch rushed to Hampton, near Malpas, after receiving reports the truck was already well alight.
It took more than three hours for the crews to tackle the blaze, although they managed to ensure that the diesel itself was safe.
A spokesman for Cheshire Fire said: "Firefighters were called to reports of a tanker fire on the A41 near Malpas.
"Crews from Chester and Whitchurch attended and found that the cab of an articulated tanker, which was carrying 37,000 litres of diesel, was well alight.
"Crews used foam and two hose reels and to extinguish the fire, they also used a thermal imaging camera to ensure that the diesel was safe.
"As a result of the fire crews were in attendance for three hours and 20 minutes."