West Mercia Police has launched an appeal for witnesses following the incident which happened, in Wood Lane, Frankton between Crosemere and Brownheath on Saturday.
The driver, a man aged in his 60s, suffered head injuries when the machine struck a brick wall. He was given trauma treatment at the scene before being airlifted to Stoke-on-Trent.
West Midlands Ambulance Service said: "We were called at 2pm on Saturday to a property in English Frankton, Ellesmere, Shropshire.
"An ambulance, paramedic officer and the Midlands Air Ambulance from Cosford with a MERIT trauma doctor and critical care paramedic on board attended the scene and arrived to find a man who had sustained serious injuries whilst riding a go-kart.
"The man was given advanced trauma care on scene before being taken by air ambulance to Royal Stoke University Hospital."
Witnesses should phone Pc Steve Wootton from the force's road policing unit on 101 quoting incident 359i of 17 October or phone 0800 555 111.
Alternatively, contact Crimestoppers anonymously on 0800 555111 or at crimestoppers-uk.org