Since the 50mph limit was enforced on August 5, about 1,200 drivers have been captured.
Each motorist has received a letter, demanding the payment of a £100 fine and imposing a three point penalty on their licence.
The roadworks, between Telford and Shrewsbury, are set to remain in place until the new year. They include speed cameras between junctions six at Ketley Interchange and seven at Wellington, which are designed to slow down traffic while bridge repairs are undertaken.
Motoring groups say the average speed cameras are a form of entrapment.
But the Safer Roads Partnership in West Mercia, made up of emergency services, councils and the Highways Agency, today defended their use.
It said the number of speeding drivers being caught was "very low".
Partnership spokeswoman Anna Higgins said: "Approximately 1,200 people have been caught speeding since enforcement started.
"This figure is very low in proportion to the number of people travelling on the M54.
"We are very encouraged that the vast majority of motorists are complying with the temporary limit while roadworks take place."
Highways bosses said the speed cameras are to slow traffic down and keep road workers and motorists safe.
Lane closures have been causing rush- hour delays on the M54 since the 40-week programme got underway in July. There have also been overnight closures of the main carriageway, together with limited access to and from the motorway from the affected junctions.
The M54 roadworks between Telford and Shrewsbury are just one problem facing motorists travelling from Shropshire to and from the West Midlands.
Further along the M54 at Staffordshire, more than 6,400 drivers have been caught breaking the 50mph speed limit, as work forges ahead to create a new slip road from the carriageway.
Average speed cameras are in operation around junction two of the motorway, where work is ongoing to create a slip road to the multi-million pound i54 business park development, which will also serve the new Jaguar Land Rover factory.
Between May and September, a total of 6,426 drivers were caught speeding and fined around £100 for travelling over the limit.
Average speed cameras are being used across the motorway network in the Midlands to enforce speed limits.
They include a seven-mile stretch of the M6 between junctions 10a at Wolverhampton and 13 near Stafford.
The M6 roadworks include a short 40mph section, which Peter Roberts from the Alliance of British Drivers said was a "cynical attempt to catch unsuspecting drivers who are used to adhering to 50mph limits".
How average speed cameras work:
Using Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) technology, average speed cameras operate in pairs
One camera - the entry camera - films your car's number plate as it enters a controlled zone and starts a timer
When you leave the zone, the exit camera films both your car and its number plate
If there's a match with the entry camera, your speed is calculated, and if you have travelled over the speed limit the evidence is passed on to the police